Help for CID / How to type Yale in CID Home

Section 1 - Help for CID ........
A. Basic Functions
B. Computer Requirement
C. Abbreviations
D. Dictionary
D1. Search and Results | D2. Vocab List | D3. Text to speech | D4. Configuration
E. Others
E1. Points to Note | E2. Cantonese Sound Systems | E3. Other Explanations

Section 2 - How to type Yale in CID
A. More than one syllable
B. Key in tones
C. Positions of tone marks and "h"

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Section 1 - Help for CID

A. Basic Functions
1. Dictionary (for both versions)
- Search by English, Yale or Chinese
- Exact or substring search
- Downloaded version plays sound files continuously. Web version plays syllable by syllable

2. Vocab list (for downloaded version only)
- Predefined vocab categories containing basic vocab
- Add user defined vocab and print it as a quick reference


3. Text to speech (for downloaded version only)
- Speak a whole passage of Chinese characters or Yale romanization script continuously.




B. Computer Requirement
1. Computer Requirement - for both versions
Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set
If you can read "
" but can't read "" it means you can read the standard Chinese but not some local Hong Kong characters. You can download the "Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set" then.
http://www.info.gov.hk/digital21/eng/hkscs/introduction.html


2. Computer Requirement - for web version only
Internet Explorer
You can use IE or other browsers to browse it. However, if you have problems in searching, install an IE and try the search again.

3. Computer Requirement - for downloaded version only
Can use either Chinese or English windows
If you are using English Windows, the characters is illegible. However you can still see the image of the characters (graphical fonts).
If you use windows XP, which supports multi language, you can also see the Chinese characters properly
English XP Settings
Or you can use an external Chinese system to simulate a Chinese environment. eg. NJstar and Richwin.
If you use English windows which is not XP and there's no external Chinese system, you can't use the function "text-to-speech" but can still use the function "dictionary".

4. Remarks
This dictionary uses Big5 code



C. Abbreviations

1. Parts of speech (POS)

adj adjectives
adv adverbs
conj conjunctions
interj interjections
mw measure words
n nouns
n-pn noun - proper noun
num numbers
ono onomatopoeias
p particles
ph phrases
pm particle-modal particles
pref prefix
prep prepositions
pron pronouns
ps particle-structural particle
pv particle-verbal particles
suff suffix
v verbs
v-aux verb - auxiliary verb
vc verb complement structure
vo verb object structure
vp verb particle structure
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2. Usage

[formal] formal usage
[less common] less commonly used
[olden] used in olden days
[specific] specific usage
[uncommon] it's uncommon
[variation] a variation of another words only, same pronunciation, just different characters are used to represent it
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PS( ) structural particle
PM( ) modal particle
PV( ) verbal particle
MW( ) measure word
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3. Yale Romanization

/ Different options are separate by "/". Usually, the more common one will be put first
[ ] Rare pronunciation
+ Additional sound. This sound is not originally on the current dictionaries
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@ The reasons for the sounds added in this dictionary:
(+) As a habit, Hong Kong people use them
(+tc) Tone changed - a tone variation used in some expressions. Most of the time the tones are changed into HR
(+bc) Borrowed characters - for the sounds which don't take a written character
(+ph) For phonetic purpose only, eg. some interjections and modal particles
(+simp) These characters may also be used as a simplified strokes character and it takes another meaning and sound then.
(+set) The sounds are only used in some set expressions or transliteration words
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D. Dictionary
D1. Search and Results
1. Searching (some of the following are for the downloaded version only)
1. Click the "down arrow" of the search box can activate the "alphabetical search"

2. Can do exact search or sub string search

3. You can copy and paste the detailed results into your own editor, eg. MS word, and then print it out.
In order to align the tone marks, you have to choose a font with same length for all letters. eg. Courier. If you copy the detailed results onto "Note Pad, which comes along with Windows, the tone marks will be aligned.

4. The searching criteria
eg. "dung" means "winter". However, when people say "winter", they probably say "dung-tin" instead. Therefore when you key in "winter", "dung-tin" can be found but "dung" can't be found.
When you key in the character or the Yale of "dung HL", you can find "winter" is in the field of "A Mean,(Also mean)"

5. The Chinese image
If you click the small button under the Chinese image, an enlarged one of it will be shown on the right

6. It seems the searched results are repeated
If you just read Yale without the Chinese characters, you may find some of the results are repeated, it means the Yale romanization are the same. However actually the Chinese characters are different.


2. Abbrev. Results (for downloaded version only)
The" Abbreviated Results" are on the upper part of the screen, while the "Detailed Results" are on the lower part of the screen.
You can activate different function by choosing different words on the "Abbreviate Results"
1. Listen - listen the Cantonese pronunciation
2. Double click - go to the "Detailed Abbreviation". This can only work when you choose "show one detail at a time" in the page of "Configuration".
3. Add to vocab list - If you search by the English, it will just add that English word to the user vocab list. However if you search by Yale or Chinese and then add them to the vocab list, all the English words that can match with this Chinese or Yale will be added.


3. Detailed Results
On the lower part of the screen -"Detailed results", you will find:

1. Yale Yale romanization (can be searched)
2. Char. Chinese characters (can be searched)
3. Means English meaning (can be searched)
4. Rem Remarks (can't be searched)
5. A Mean. Also means (can't be searched)
6. Usage specific / formal / less common / olden / uncommon / variation
7. S/W spoken / written
8. POS Parts of speech
9. Radical available for single character only
10. Strokes available for single character only


1) Yale
(1) Common option
One character may take a few different pronunciation, the more common option will be put first eg.? "three": saam HL / saam ML
(2) Rare sounds
If the sound is very rare, it will be bracketed by "[ ]"
(3) Additional sounds
Some pronunciations of the characters are not included in the traditional dictionaries but widely adopt by Hong Kong people. This dictionary will also include these widely adopted pronunciation with the marking "(+)" right after the romanization to highlight this. Some of these pronunciation are known "wrong" actually. However the "right" one sounds unusual and maybe funny to them. Usually the broadcasting people, news reporters and language teachers may adopt the "right" one. But most people just adopt the "common" one. eg. ?"tin": sehk(+)/sek. On their dictionaries, it's "sek". However, most people pronounce it as "sehk".

2) (5)Also means
This is a reference meaning only. They stand for the implied meanings or the meanings of some seldom used single characters.

3) (7) S/W
Spoken - These words are usually or only adopted in spoken form only
Written - These words are usually adopted in written form only

4) (8) POS
A word may take more than one part of speech and maybe not all the parts of speech are shown.


4. Typing Yale
If you use Yale for searching, there are 3 options in treating the tone marks

1) Use the exact tone
eg.
tone1 = HL = si-
tone2 = HR = si/
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = si\h (for the web version, si|h is used instead)
tone5 = LR = si/h
tone6 = LL = sih

2) Use the exact "h" for the tone but ignore all the tone marks
eg.
tone1 = HL = si
tone2 = HR = si
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = sih
tone5 = LR = sih
tone6 = LL = sih
i.e.
when you type "si", the searched results include: si-, si/, si
when you type "sih", the searched results include: si\h, si/h, sih

3) Just ignore the "h" and tone mark
eg.
tone1 = HL = si
tone2 = HR = si
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = si
tone5 = LR = si
tone6 = LL = si
i.e. when you type "si",
the searched results include: si-, si/, si, si\h, si/h, sih

If you key in more than one syllable at a time, eg. "sihk faahn" for "having a meal", don't put "-" between the syllables, otherwise it will be treated as HL tone mark.



D2. Vocab List (for downloaded version only)
Printing
As this print out is for quick reference only, no remarks and only the commonly adopted sound are shown.
Due to the limitation of the space, only the first 4 Chinese characters are printed. It means if the Chinese expression takes more than 4 characters, the later characters won't be printed.
If the Yale is too long, the POS won't be printed



D3. Text to speech (for downloaded version only)
1. English windows
English windows can also use this function, Although the Chinese characters are illegible, the sounds can work.

2. Read Chinese text
Copy a Chinese text, from a Chinese web site etc, then click "Start analyse", the analysed text will be shown at the lower part of the screen with Yale beside the characters.
Then you can click "play this" or "play non-stop". If you double click the lower part's results, it means "play this".
If you want to start in the middle of the text or specific character, choose the character that you want to play or start to play from the "analysed text" (which is on the lower part of the screen) but not the original screen.

3. Limitation
Sometimes, a character takes different sounds in different context. The program cannot judge which sound should be used in the context. It only picks up the first option from it's different possible sounds.

4. Read Yale text
If you use Yale instead of characters, exact tone marks have to be typed.
eg.
tone1 = HL = si-
tone2 = HR = si/
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = si\h
tone5 = LR = si/h
tone6 = LL = sih



D4. Configuration (for downloaded version only)
1. Listen
By adjusting the number under the icon of the speaker, you can adjust the time interval between each syllable.

2. Maximise the screen
If the screen is not maximised, you have to click the enlarging button on the upper right hand corner of both the inner and outer window frame of the program.



E. Others
E1. Points to Note (for downloaded version only)
1.Clicking the sound
If you click the buttons for listening the sounds repeatedly in a short time, an error box maybe come out. You just click "ignore" can skip this error box.

2. Exit the program
Clicking the "File" of the pull down menu, you can find the option "Exit".
You can also click the "cross" on the upper right hand corner of inner window of the program. (the "cross" of the outer window can't do)


E2. Cantonese Sound Systems

1. The Yale romanization
This dictionary adopt the Yale romanization system with some modifications.


2. High falling and High level
In traditional Yale, Tone 1 is High falling and Tone 7 is High level. However in this dictionary, High falling and High level are not distinguished and both are marked as High Level (Tone 1).
This can agree how actually Hong Kong people say and agree to their dictionaries. Since in their dictionaries, High level and High falling are not distinguished, both are marked Tone 1.
You are recommended to pronounce High level instead of High falling as its much more common and sounds more natural nowadays.


3. Tones
There are only 6 distinctive tones in Cantonese.
Traditional Cantonese sound system states there are 9 tones. However the last 3 tones are actually the repetitions.


4.Initials
Hong Kong people don't distinguish the pronunciation of the initial "n" and "l". Most people say "l" sound for "n" sound.


5.Finals
This dictionary states there are 51 finals. Some books include "m" and "ng" as the finals as well and therefore there are 53 finals.


6.Some other finals
There are some sounds which take the finals not included in the traditional 51 or 53 finals: "eiu, em, ep, up, en, et". They are only for a few syllables and some of them are only the "sound" sometimes a Cantonese would say such as in interjections or onomatopoeia etc. These finals or sounds are not included in their traditional dictionaries.
This dictionary don't include these 6 finals as the standard finals but do include the actual words that using them
eg. throw away: "deiuh" / to clip: "gehp"


7.With or without "ng"
For finals staring with "a", "o" and "u" without using other initials, this dictionary is standardised to treat in the following way:

"ng" won't be used in:
tone 1 (high level) eg. correct = am (instead of "ngam")
tone 2 (high rising) eg. short = i (instead of "ngi")
tone 3 (middle level) eg. love = oi (instead of "ngoi")

"ng" will be used in:
Tone 4 (low falling) eg. cow = nguh
Tone 5 (low rising) eg. I = ngh
Tone 6 (low level) eg. hungry = ngoh

If the tone is originally tone 4, 5, or 6, because tone change, they are changed in tone 1, 2 or 3, "ng" is still kept.
eg. goose: ngh (original tone - low falling) / ng (tone change - high rising)

However, actually for tone 1, 2 and 3, people can optionally add "ng" when they pronounce them.


E3. Other Explanations
1.Simplified strokes characters
Simplified strokes characters are used in the mainland China
Complicated strokes characters are used in Hong Kong and Taiwan
(it is also called traditional strokes)


Section 2 - How to type Yale in CID

A. More than one syllable
If you key in more than one syllable at a time, put a space between each syllable and don't put "-" between the syllables, otherwise it will be treated as HL tone mark.
Examples:
"sihk faahn" (exact tone) for "having a meal"
"ga-m yaht" (exact tone) for "today"
"gam yaht" (exact "h") for "today"
"gam yat" (any tone) for "today"

B. Key in tones
Using Yale for searching, there are 3 options in treating the tone marks

1. Use the exact tone
eg.
tone1 = HL = si-
tone2 = HR = si/
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = si|h (for the downloaded version, si\h is used instead)
tone5 = LR = si/h
tone6 = LL = sih

2. Use the exact "h" for the tone but ignore all the tone marks
eg.
tone1 = HL = si
tone2 = HR = si
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = sih
tone5 = LR = sih
tone6 = LL = sih
i.e.
when you type "si", the searched results include: si-, si/, si
when you type "sih", the searched results include: si\h, si/h, sih

3. Just ignore the "h" and tone mark
eg.
tone1 = HL = si
tone2 = HR = si
tone3 = ML = si
tone4 = LF = si
tone5 = LR = si
tone6 = LL = si
i.e. when you type "si",
the searched results include: si-, si/, si, si\h, si/h, sih

C. Positions of tone marks and "h"

The tone marks -, / or | have to be put after the first vowel letters: a, e, i, o, u. (eg. ya-t: one, se/ung: want)
The low level tone mark
h have to be put after the last vowel letters (eg. deih: ground, yuhng: use)

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